The earliest known scientific study of the Polish cochineal is found in the Herbarz Polski (Polish Herbal) by Marcin of Urzędów (1595), where it was described as "small red seeds" that grow under plant roots, becoming "ripe" in April and from which a little "bug" emerges in June. in late June, usually around Saint John the Baptist's day (June 24), hence the dye's folk name, Saint John's blood. It takes from 155 000 to 250 000 insects to make one kilogram of cochineal. I disagree. Pigments are materials which change reflected light’s color because of wavelength absorption. After you have dyed your fabric with your natural dye, allow the dye bath to cool to room temperature. Lakes are also made by directly precipitating cochineal extract with solutions of potassium carbonate and alum. It is the only way to get a truly bright scarlet red using cochineal. According to Donkin, R.A., the research work of Pfister establishes the earliest documentation for Polish Cochineal dye in textiles, those found in Egypt and Syria, dating to Hellenistic-Roman times. Also, isolation of the dye is complicated by interferences from a rather high fat content, up to about 30% by weight. Each method produces a different colour which results in the varied appearance of commercial cochineal. Leave for fifteen minutes. Tiglath-pileser I (ca. The extract could then be used for dyeing silk, wool, cotton or linen. In Babenko's article, reprinted here, the director of the laboratory investigating the cochineal of Azerbaijan -girmiz noted that the dried insects were not red but were a variety of other colors. Purity of colour is ensured by the absence of iron. Purity of colour is ensured by the absence of iron. Kermesic acid, lac dye components and other dyes can be examined by high pressure liquid chromatography. Kermes oak) in Mediterranean countries, also in certain parts of Iran. All the examples below have been dyed using the natural dyeing processes described here. In terms of economics and trade, we know that there was a single annual harvest of the adult female in the autumn and that the dye amounts to up to 5% of the insect's live weight. [9] All of the host plants of cochineal colonies were identified as species of Opuntia including Opuntia amyclaea, O. atropes, O. cantabrigiensis, O. brasilienis, O. ficus-indica, O. fuliginosa, O. jaliscana, O. leucotricha, O. lindheimeri, O. microdasys, O. megacantha, O. pilifera, O. robusta, O. sarca, O. schikendantzii, O. stricta, O. streptacantha, and O. tomentosa. Cover the jar and leave for at least 3 weeks . Cochineal extract's natural carminic-acid content is usually 19–22%. What is the chief chemical principle of the dyestuff in the cochineal of Azerbaijan? Distribution of the Kermococcus vermilis is, of course, that of the host oak species. The 14th century famous Azerbaijan geographer and historian Hamdullah Gazvini (1340), mentions the production of girmiz/kirmiz in the plains to the south of Marand, in S. Azerbaijan. So always keep all dyeing equipment separate from cooking utensils. For the reds in classical carpets, things are a bit more interesting. I used cochineal at 300% weight of fabric (WOF). Here are some examples of how using iron as a modifier can really expand your color palette. The kermes worm is collected at this point, which jibes with various reports of insect gathering from kermes oaks in April and early May. In this case I dyed silk using Eucalyptus to 100% weight of fabric. The insects are gathered by small groups of collectors who sell them to local processors or exporters. In this example I dyed different kinds of silk using acorns to 300% weight of fabric (WOF). Parallel decline probably occurred for the same reason: the introduction and rapidly expanding trade in American (Spanish) cactus cochineal dye from Spanish America sources. b) The Kermes Insect: Entomology and Geography Reliev to show: Urartu*- After the fall of the Hittite empire, at the beginning of the first millennium B.C., kingdom of Urartu was formed in eastern Anatolia, which was to survive for 300 years. They have been introduced to Spain, the Canary Islands, Algiers and Australia along with their host cacti. Evergreen oaks which might have included the kermes host oak species were known to the Hebrews. Any dye/chemical technologist would confirm that the biochemical form of a dye or pigment in the insect as well as the visual appearance of the insect itself need not accord to the eye with the chemically isolated, pure dyestuff. All evidence indicates that its use was confined to expensive textiles and apparel. Insect density on the ground and the host grass during this period can be very high. In the 19th century, Bukhara (Uzbekistan) became the principal Polish cochineal trading center in Central Asia; from there the dye was shipped to Kashgar (Xinjiang), Kabul and Herat (Afghanistan). Mankind’s love of and quest for color in the form of pigments and dyes has motivated human aesthetics, exploration, exploitation, and experimentation since prehistoric times. Playing around with mordants such as iron as a post mordant or color modifier is great fun! In this example I dyed wool yarn using a very intense cochineal dye bath (yarn on the left). The fiber on the left is before the modifier and the fiber on the right is the result of the fiber after dipping it in the modified dye bath. There are two principal forms of cochineal dye: cochineal extract is a colouring made from the raw dried and pulverised bodies of insects (it is used to dye woolen and silk yarns), and carmine is a more purified colouring made from the cochineal. We do know a fair amount about the insect's biochemistry, however. Greco-Roman accounts of the kermes insect and its dye are rather garbled in terms of clearly characterizing this specific coccid. The complete cycle lasts 3 months during which the cacti are kept at a constant temperature of 27 °C. Only traces of other colored substances were found. I recommend to use the iron water as a dye bath modifier rather than dipping the whole yarn or fabric inside the iron water. By 1536, the royal Cochineal tribute amounted to 6,300 pounds of dye, and, when it was discovered that Cochineal was superior to Kermes and could be acquired in larger quantities by using cheaper labor, demand for the pigment ballooned and Cochineal became Spain’s second most profitable export item from the New World. Lakes are thus formed. This is discussed further in the report. Of the various insect dyes known to readers of oriental decorative art literature, the Polish Cochineal coccid dye insect and its dye are least familiar. Note also how the persistence of the term "kyrmyz, qyrmyz" in the native area of the cochineal of Azerbaijan would induce and sustain confusion between the local coccid and the oak kermes coccid insects. In the 18th and 19th centuries, the extension of Czarist Russian colonial control to western and central Asia was accompanied by trade development in the Polish Cochineal dye.

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