I am writing a poem written by a famous Ming dynasty poet, Li Rihua.

This prop failed. Reading and writing in ancient times wasn't for the masses, however. This cuneiform text dates back to the 6th year of prince Lugalanda who ruled about 2370 B.C. And it’s slippery, that’s, that is very noticeable, just how slippery this surface is. Major funding for NOVA is provided by the David H. Koch Fund for Science, the Corporation for Public Broadcasting and PBS viewers. We cover them.

If he’d been trying to print a different script, he might never have succeeded.

This is a dictionary. Books would become rare and precious objects, as Europeans turned to a new and much more expensive material on which to write. For a patron, a commissioner, and he says it will cost 20 pounds, this luxury book. We can now edit the human genome with a tool called CRISPR. Prop 13, the campaign to slash property taxes, launched a tax revolt that continues today. It’s a fairly soft material, and the pithy side will absorb ink quite a bit, so, instead of having a natural reservoir like a quill has, it’s actually the wood, itself, absorbing a certain charge of ink. This is a modular way of writing, and, in fact, if I want to make little blocks of metal with them, no problem, because I’m already, I’m already there, basically. But the Egyptians also had a portable, everyday medium on which to write. They are covered in monumental Arabic calligraphy, praising God and extolling the virtues of learning. Just as handwritten records changed how societies work, the printing press transformed the spread of information, igniting the Industrial Revolution. Season 47 Episode 14 | 53m 31s We arrange them between two pieces of cotton.

Journalists like Ken Kurson are shocked as to how it has so vastly changed from the time he first started. How did technologies–from pen to paper to printing press—make it all possible? Can Cuba's innovative lung cancer vaccines give new hope to patients across the world? New York, I feel that very strongly. Quantum entanglement is poised to revolutionize technology from networks to code breaking, but first we need to know it's real.
What does science say about the human relationship with cats? As it happens, Brody’s studio is in Bruges.

At the pace I’m writing now, I could probably write, in a really good day, two pages of one of these great Bibles, certainly not more. Huell's off to Shingletown in Northern California to visit a sanctuary to magnificent horses forcibly removed from our deserts and plains. But when a Mesopotamian people called the Sumerians finally did scratch out a few bookkeeping symbols on clay tablets 5,000 years ago, they unknowingly started a whole new era in history we call, well … history. The key components of that technology are traditionally known as “the four treasures of the study.” First is paper, then, the brush, and the calligrapher needs an ink stone on which to grind her ink, which comes in the form of a stick of solid pigment. Nearby the university, Ulugh Beg built an observatory.

MATTHEW NICHOLLS: In the libraries, we can estimate maybe tens of thousands of scrolls, and that’s just the big public collections.
NARRATOR: After cooking, the mill pounds the mulberry pith for up to eight hours to produce a pulp.

With the world pinning its hopes on a successful coronavirus vaccine to curb the pandemic, corporate watchdogs say much of the research and development of the medicines rely on publicly funded research. But that part also is breakable, as you can see, or easy to break. SUNATULLO MUKHITDINOV: (Translated from Uzbek) The invention of paper, an information technology that was cheaper than in Europe, which only had parchment at that time, helped science to travel easier and further. 1. Closed Captioning. What do we lose? In most places, writing started about the same time ancient civilizations emerged from hunter-gatherer communities, probably as a way to keep track of the new concept of "property," such as animals, grain supplies or land. A to Z: How Writing Changed the World Just as handwritten records changed how societies work, the printing press transformed the spread of information, igniting the Industrial Revolution. Hayley assigns wedding preparation tasks to the family, but Hugh still doesn't approve of the marriage and causes a rift with Ajax. NARRATOR: The fall of the Roman Empire coincides with a change in the technology of writing in Europe. Several artists and people who work with artists share their best tips on things to do when work is slow. The first form is a recognizable calligraphic Arabic hand. DR. BRODY NEUENSCHWANDER (Calligrapher): Medieval books were not made by vegetarians. Officials began using standardized symbols — rather than, say, an actual picture of a goat — to represent commodities, scratched into soft clay tablets with a pointed reed that had been cut into a wedge shape. Or can it? Copyright © 2020 Public Broadcasting Service (PBS), all rights reserved.

As long as the light held, you’d be able to keep churning out your Ovids for your master. This is the story of history’s most important technology, the technology of putting words on a page. It’s a little less romantic that way, but otherwise it would stick in your eye. And that wide point is going to be pushed from right to left to make the long strokes of Arabic calligraphy. The knowledge and perceptions people have gathered from reading any genre of the story are remarkable. So, there’s very little access to information at this time in Europe. Here, we would fold to make a large book. Problems Playing Video? In Registan Square, three great Islamic Universities face each other.

That simple fact lies behind a thousand-fold increase in the availability of information, an explosion of ideas that led directly to the European Scientific Revolution, the Industrial Revolution that followed, and the world we live in today. The printing revolution began in the German town of Mainz, in 1448, when Johannes Gutenberg, a goldsmith by trade, began casting the letters of the Latin alphabet in metal. NARRATOR: And that intellectual life was rich indeed. The slices now will be more strong and more flexible than the part, it would break. The printing press itself kicked off the scientific revolution that fast-tracked us to the current digital age.

Major funding for NOVA is provided by the David H. Koch Fund for Science, …, Scientists Use NASA Tech to Decode Damaged Scrolls, Aboriginal Elder Sings Ancient Creation Song, NOVA's "A to Z: How Writing Changed the World" Homepage.

But NASA only gets three shots at collecting a sample. Egyptian hieroglyphs can still be read in monumental inscriptions carved in stone. According to Ulugh Beg’s calculations, the solar year was 365 days, 6 hours, 10 minutes and 9 seconds.

And you can see here that the words do not stack up upon each other like the calligraphic hand. By 3000 B.C.

So, I’m going to see what it’s like to write those letters with this, with this reed pen. It’s a “cliché,” a wooden block. Original funding for this program was provided by Draper, the David H. Koch Fund for Science, the George D. Smith Fund, the NOVA Science Trust and the Corporation for Public Broadcasting.

Yes, it’s, it’s amazingly fast, really. In fact, it’s words that stack and are interwoven across the line.

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