Modes of action are colour-coded according to the physiological functions affected. Sánchez MC, Alvarez Sedó C, Chaufan GR, Romanato M, Da Cuña R, Lo Nostro F, Calvo JC, Fontana V. Toxicol Res (Camb). Endosulfan is an organochlorine insecticide and acaracide used to control a broad range of insect and arthropod pests on a wide variety of crops in many agrosystems. Endocrine-disrupting chemicals in aquatic environment: what are the risks for fish gametes. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part C: Toxicology & Pharmacology, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cbpc.2016.05.008. Epub 2015 Mar 21. No differences were observed between the AI and CFs, suggesting that the effect on steroidogenesis disruption is mainly caused by the AI. Endosulfan has been used in agriculture around the world to control insect pests including whiteflys, aphids, leafhoppers, Colorado potato beetles and cabbage worms. α-Endosulfan and β-endosulfan are expected to break down in soil, but endosulfan sulfate is more resistant. USA.gov. : 257; Other examples include dicofol, mirex, kepone, and pentachlorophenol. 2018 Mar;47:103-119. doi: 10.1016/j.tiv.2017.11.003. By itself, ES did not affect hormone levels. No differences were observed between the AI and CFs, suggesting that the effect on steroidogenesis disruption is mainly caused by the AI. When co-incubated with precursors dehydroandrostenedione and 17αhydroxyprogesterone, ES did not affect the increase caused by their addition alone. When co-incubated with precursors dehydroandrostenedione and 17αhydroxyprogesterone, ES did not affect the increase caused by their addition alone. Epub 2011 Mar 5. Because of its unique mode of action, it is useful in insect control; however, it can also negatively impact populations of beneficial insects. The organochlorine pesticide endosulfan (ES) is used in several countries as a wide spectrum insecticide on crops with high commercial value. Active ingredients; Commercial formulation; Endocrine disruption; Endosulfan; Gonad culture; Organochlorine pesticide. Endosulfan to Be Banned, Pesticide Poses "Unacceptable Risks," EPA Says. No attempt is made to include all the important compounds within a group, and no endorsement of, or d… Pyrethroids. Get the latest public health information from CDC: https://www.coronavirus.gov, Get the latest research information from NIH: https://www.nih.gov/coronavirus, Find NCBI SARS-CoV-2 literature, sequence, and clinical content: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sars-cov-2/. Copyright © 2020 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. This chapter focuses on the chemistry and mode of action of insecticides, and the term “insecticide” will encompass both organic natural products and synthetic compounds. If the Agency identifies other substances that share a common mechanism of toxicity with endosulfan, then the cumulative risks of these chemicals will be considered once the final framework the Agency will use for evaluating cumulative risks is available. Results indicate that action of ES takes place downstream of LH-receptor activation and upstream of the studied steroidogenic enzymes. Endosulfan exists as two (α and β) isomers that can be metabolized to endosulfan sulfate and endosulfan diol. [10] It is, however, considered to be moderately toxic to honey bees,[11] and it is less toxic to bees than organophosphate insecticides. Discussion of synthetic insecticides will emphasize the major classes of commercial materials. Due to its high toxicity to non-target animals, its persistence in the environment and its ability to act as an endocrine disrupting compound in fish, ES use is currently banned or restricted in many other countries. Entamoeba coli. Epub 2017 Nov 13. Co-incubation with LH and the adenylate cyclase activator forskolin caused a decrease of the stimulated sex steroids release. Endocrine disruptive potential of endosulfan on the reproductive axis of Cichlasoma dimerus (Perciformes, Cichlidae). Previous studies on the cichlid fish Cichlasoma dimerus have shown that waterborne exposure to ES can lead to both decreased pituitary FSH content and histological alterations of testes. As two ( α and β ) isomers that can be either or! Pesticide, speculated to be moderately toxic to honey bees, and several other advanced are! Plants and soil during its use as pesticide not affect hormone levels not approved for use the... 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