It is common throughout California and grows at elevations to about 4900 feet (1500 m). Megathyrsus maximus was formerly known as Panicum maximum, placed in a subgenus of Panicum, within the grass subfamily Panicoideae. [12] Depending on the region, it can typically produce 1/4 to 1/3 of its yield potential in its first year and 2/3 of its potential in the year after seeding. Gatton) is a medium-height variety of guinea grass: a tufted, summer-growing perennial similar to green panic and just as palatable. Their models also suggested that the “human toxicity potential” and “eco-toxicity potential” were substantially greater for the high ethanol fuels (i.e., E85 and ethanol) than for gasoline and E10. Panicum virgatum. It can grow and even thrive in many weather conditions, lengths of growing seasons, soil types, and land conditions. The most widely studied project to date has been the Chariton Valley Project in Iowa. Generally, the crop requires modest application of nitrogen fertilizer, as it is not a heavy feeder. Habit. Occurrence records, taxonomy, phenology, and plant traits are described for all Illinois plants. var. In general, the seeds of Panic Grasses are an important source of food to many upland gamebirds and granivorous songbirds (see Bird Table). P. v. tennesseense. Warm-Season Grass. The leaves are .25 to 1.0 inch wide. Date Collected?-07-27. Soil erosion, both from wind and water, is of great concern in regions where switchgrass grows. Identifying Characteristics. As European settlers began spreading west across the continent, the native grasses were plowed under and the land converted to crops such as corn, wheat, and oats. Once established, switchgrass can take up to three years to reach its full production potential. For example, the aquatic plant whose common name in Florida is maidencane has the scientific name Panicum hemitomon or Panicum hemitomon. [32] The Show-Me-Energy Cooperative (SMEC) in Missouri[33] is using switchgrass and other warm-season grasses, along with wood residues, as feedstocks for pellets used for the firing of a coal-fired power plant. Common Name. It is now being considered for use in several bioenergy conversion processes, including cellulosic ethanol production, biogas, and direct combustion for thermal energy applications. [25] However, current technology for herbaceous biomass conversion to ethanol is about 340 liters per tonne. Researchers are continuing to learn more about the specific conditions under which switchgrass causes harm to these species, but until more is discovered, it is recommended switchgrass not be fed to them. Fall panicum is an annual grass. If its biology is properly taken into consideration, switchgrass can offer great potential as an energy crop.[10][14]. var. The gray-green stems and leaves are covered with fine hairs. Panic Grass can net up to 100 gallons of ethanol per ton, which is more efficient than corn. Common Name(s) Panic Grass: Scientific Name: Panicum virgatum: Family: Poaceae: Location/Vegetative Zone: Salt Marsh: Flowering Period: August: Identifying Characteristics: Upright grass with seeds at end, about 5 feet tall (can grow up to 8 feet) Description. Switchgrass uses C4 carbon fixation, giving it an advantage in conditions of drought and high temperature. The leaves are elongated, flat, and glabrous to pubescent. P. maximum was the sole species in Panicum subgenus Megathyrsus, now elevated to genus rank. Panicum curtifolium. is a vigorous, tufted perennial grass that can reach 1.5 m to 3 m high (Ecocrop, 2011; FAO, 2011; Surhone et al., 2010). Life cycle assessment of switchgrass-derived ethanol as transport fuel. [20] Thus, switchgrass cellulosic ethanol should give a higher yield of ethanol per hectare at lower cost. When seeded as part of a diverse mixture, planting guidelines for warm-season grass mixtures for conservation plantings should be followed. Environmental Research Letters. Switchgrass is both a perennial and self-seeding crop, which means farmers do not have to plant and reseed after annual harvesting. Yard Conditions. Studies have found that for every unit of energy input needed to create a biofuel from switchgrass, four units of energy are yielded. Bitter Panicum is a native, perennial, rhizomatous, warm-season dune grass native to coastal regions. [17] However, these yields were recorded on small plot trials, and commercial field sites could be expected to be at least 20% lower than these results. short-leaved panic grass. 506-508. Scientific name (s) Panicum maximum var. Panicum antidotale Retz. Herbicides are not often used on switchgrass after the seeding year, as the crop is generally quite competitive with weeds. We apologize for any errors you may encounter and are working hard to fix them while renovating the website. Other common names for witchgrass are panicgrass, ticklegrass, tumble panic, tumbleweed grass, and witches hair. It grows upright and close to the ground forming large clumps. in central Queensland. Other scientific names of this species are Panicum scribnerianum and Panicum oligosanthes scribnerianum, but it has been reassigned to the Dichanthelium genus. Bailey Stamler, S., R. Samson and C. Ho Lem. [19] As a greenhouse gas mitigation strategy, switchgrass pellets were found to be an effective means to use farmland to mitigate greenhouse gases on the order of 7.6-13 tonnes of CO2 per hectare. Panicum virgatum, commonly known as switchgrass, is a perennial warm season bunchgrass native to North America, where it occurs naturally from 55°N latitude in Canada southwards into the United States and Mexico. Panic Grass grows best in Full Sun. ABBREVIATION : PANVIR SYNONYMS : NO-ENTRY SCS PLANT CODE : PAVI2 PAVIC PAVIS COMMON NAMES : switchgrass prairie switchgrass tall panic grass TAXONOMY : The currently accepted scientific name of switchgrass is Panicum virgatum L. [37,38]. [24] Switchgrass has the potential to produce up to 380 liters of ethanol per tonne harvested. - Scientific name: Panicum amarum 'Dewey Blue' - Bloom period: September to February Bitter switchgrass has been said to resemble a fountain, with blue flowers extending out of upright stems. Bitter Panicum is a native, perennial, rhizomatous, warm-season dune grass native to coastal regions. Round-seeded panic grass is found in seasonally flooded wetlands formed in shallow depressions and potholes in glacial lakeplain and outwash landscapes. Common Name(s): Scribner's Panicum, Panicum,Scribner's, Dichanthelium,Scribner's: Scientific Name: Panicum oligosanthes: Synoyms: Dichanthelium oligosanthes Panicum dichotomiflorum – fall panicum Distribution: Native in most of central and eastern United States; occasionally introduced in Washington. Family: Grass Family (Gramineae). Other common names for witchgrass are panicgrass, ticklegrass, tumble panic, tumbleweed grass, and witches hair. Poaceae or Gramineae. Volume 2. [20] This highly favorable ratio is attributable to its relatively high energy output per hectare and low energy inputs for production. (Hairy panicum) The leaves are 30–90 cm (12–35 in) long, with a prominent midrib. [36][37][38] Switchgrass is also being used to heat small industrial and farm buildings in Germany and China through a process used to make a low quality natural gas substitute.[39]. long-panicled panic-grass. Chemical weed control can be used in the fall prior to establishment, or before or after planting. Both glumes are present and well developed. Panicum linearifolium . [26] In contrast, corn ethanol yields about 400 liters per tonne.[27]. This diversity, which presumably reflects evolution and adaptation to new environments as the species spread across the continent, provides a range of valuable traits for breeding programs. 2007. Panicum lanuginosum var. Synonyms (former Scientific Names): Panicum rhizomatum . Varies: less than 5 mm, 6 to 15 mm. Those who find value in it grows it in gardens and lawns. Other common names for this weed include tumbleweedgrass and witches-hair. Native millet (Panicum decompositum) forms a large blue-green tussock and the leaves have a distinct whitish midvein. Display as: Panicum capillare – witchgrass Distribution: Introduced and weedy in much of the United States and southern Canada. Most bioenergy conversion processes for switchgrass, including those for cellulosic ethanol and pellet fuel production, can generally accept some alternative species in the harvested biomass. Bambatsi is much slower to establish than rhodes grass or green panic. This plant is native to the southeastern part of the United States, West Indies, and South America – contrary to what the name may suggest. It is native to North America, where it is found in coastal regions along the East Coast and Gulf Coast of the United States and into northeastern Mexico. Other common names for switchgrass include tall panic grass, Wobsqua grass, blackbent, tall prairiegrass, wild redtop, thatchgrass, and Virginia switchgrass. Other common names for this weed include tumbleweedgrass and witches-hair. Panicum virgatum. Scientific names. Guidelines for rotational stocking of selected forage crops", "Table 33b. 38 pages, "Samson et al., 2008": In regions where the. fasciculatum. Bambatsi panic makes less growth in winter than green panic (Panicum maximum), digit grass (Digitaria eriantha) or buffel grass(Cenchrus ciliaris), albeit that winter production is low from all species, except in warmer districts e.g.

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