I am of the view that governments have an important role in coordinating markets. He is currently CEO of the Nusa Tenggara Association, an Australian NGO engaged in rural development in eastern Indonesia. Including plants accustomed and acclimated to the warm weather that global warming can produce, ensures economic productivity and profitability in agriculture. Dr. Colin Barlow has worked on the socio-economic problems of Malaysian agriculture for many years, being especially involved with oil palm and rubber. By using our website you consent to all cookies in accordance with our updated Cookie Notice. However, the effect levels are different depending on the empirical estimation procedure adopted. Takes more than a few seconds to digest, which probably puts it beyond the reach of most, but important nonetheless in this age of the tragic “web traffic = importance” mindset . It is predominantly a job for young males of 20-35, who can easily conduct such work on a regular basis. of course he missed some variables, but the beauty about this world is no one is perfect, so it leaves room for others to make incremental improvements. Finally, opening up to markets in a continuum and can (in theory) be done gradually and carefully. Good extension services have been crucial to small farm development in many countries around the world, with part of this process entailing progressive adjustment by extension personnel to the burgeoning needs of small farmers. The probit model also correctly classified 69.37% of the maize farm households among the participants and 69.66% among the non-participants with a total accurate prediction rate of 69.50% for the entire sample. This is due to the fact that the cabinet and parliament are rarely the source of specific policies – instead they provide a great deal of latitude to the Ministry of Agriculture (along with other ministries) to develop on-the-ground policies. This development emphasises the importance of labour-saving technologies, which are easier to secure in rubber than in oil palm. It is estimated that temperatures will increase five degrees Celsius by 2050. Through May 6, beef slaughters were down 31% from a year ago, while pork slaughters were down 34%. The data were obtained mainly from primary sources, through the use of structured questionnaires. "Total meat production is expected to be up 3% to 108 billion pounds. It is associated with greenhouses gases including carbon dioxide, methane gas, and nitrous oxide. By the way, one can have a practical view of markets and be against opening an economy to them. Adoption of cocoa farm management practices in Prestea Huni-Valley District, Ghana. 5th ed. Like ethanol, corn futures prices have also fallen dramatically (19%). Four non-ACDEP operational communities were selected from Tolon district, while three were selected from Kumbugu district. As I noted earlier, I don’t know the Malay set-up very well, so I appreciate your insights. These variables include distance to local district market, distance to regional city market and farm size. Look forward to reading your future comments. Article  The role of neighbourhood leaders in Indonesia’s COVID-19 response, The pro-democracy monks joining Thailand's protests. This occurred despite the countries strict adherence to reduce emissions, while some suggest reduced emissions only occurred due to a faulty economy. The substantive equation can be specified as: where αi measures the effect of ACDEP extension services on the outcome variables. Furthermore, the size of the plot allocated to maize production (farm size) had a positive and significant influence on farm income across the three estimation techniques. Similarly, access to agricultural credit will encourage farmers to participate in the extension programme to get more information that may help to maximize their yield to repay the credit on time. But here is the basic argument. The study has reaffirmed the critical role of extension programmes in enhancing farm productivity and household income. The endogeneity problem may arise becuase the programme may target farmers with specific characteristics (smallholder farmers, commercial farmers, poor farmers or relatively wealthy farmers). I would suggest that they are much more the children of the government than the markets (which they surely fear). Jan Nyrop. [27] who found no contribution of extension programmes to crop productivity. Much more can be done to take advantage of agriculture’s potential to improve nutrition and health. 2012;1(1):103–17. Instead those countries have average yields at between 6 and 7 tons/Ha. One need is the institutional reform of land tenure, which as suggested above restricts possible increases in holding size. Futures for staple commodities like corn and soybeans plummeted. [19]. ( Log Out /  The mean annual rainfall ranges between 950 and 1200 mm. 50%) of which 95.4% of the households are engaged in agriculture [15]. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated. In the second stage, a random sampling was used to select four ACDEP operational communities from each district. No one in government has any vision for the future. household head, spouse and other economically active members). Key informants such as some heads of departments of ACDEP office in Tamale, Ghana and community leaders were approached to discuss challenges and opportunities relating to the programme and how the programme can aid in increasing productivity and farm income. Privacy in Ghana [4,5,6,7,8]. “Cassava production in Thailand” was a good hint, yielding immediate background info with one web search: Evolution and organization of cassava value chains… (2010) Julia Tijaja, Development Policy and Practice, the Open University, UK. Most researchers indicate that global warming will cause the value of agriculture to rise. Agricultural extension is aimed primarily at improving the knowledge of farmers for rural development; as such, it has been recognized as a critical component for technology transfer. Thus, “the more agriculture enters the GHGE (Green House Gas Emissions) business the less there will be conventional agricultural production … and cause price of food commodities to rise”, (McCarl & Schneider, 2004). Thanks so much for all these comments that essentially constitute priceless hints on how to begin research, very tempting.

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