Only trace amounts reach the food chain, so the average person's daily intake is less than 0.1 microgram. The cosmic abundance of scandium is relatively high. Scandium forms a series of organometallic compounds with cyclopentadienyl ligands (Cp), similar to the behavior of the lanthanides. The halides are Lewis acids; for example, ScF3 dissolves in a solution containing excess fluoride ion to form [ScF6]3−. [44], The alloy Al20Li20Mg10Sc20Ti30 is as strong as titanium, light as aluminium, and hard as ceramic. This … Lars Fredrik Nilson and his team detected this element in the minerals euxenite and gadolinite in 1879.

Only trace amounts reach the food chain, so the average person's daily intake is less than 0.1 microgram. Naturally occurring scandium is composed of 1 stable isotope 45 Sc. Scandium is mostly dangerous in the working environment, due to the fact that damps and gasses can be inhaled with air. Ionic radius. 44.9559 g.mol-1.

This article was most recently revised and updated by,, Los Alamos National Laboratory - Scandium, scandium - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up). Elemental scandium is considered non-toxic, though extensive animal testing of scandium compounds has not been done. [45], The main application of scandium by weight is in aluminium-scandium alloys for minor aerospace industry components. Our latest podcast episode features popular TED speaker Mara Mintzer. Scandium is a chemical element that has the symbol Sc and the atomic number 21. … Crystal Structure of α-ScOOH", "Sur l'ytterbine, terre nouvelle de M. Marignac", Berichte der deutschen chemischen Gesellschaft, Zeitschrift für anorganische und allgemeine Chemie, "Star-wars intrigue greets scandium find", Evidence against Anomalous Compositions for Giants in the Galactic Nuclear Star Cluster, "A Novel Low-Density, High-Hardness, High-entropy Alloy with Close-packed Single-phase Nanocrystalline Structures", "Easton Technology Report: Materials / Scandium", "Green Lewis acid catalysis in organic synthesis",, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 23 November 2020, at 19:57.

In the larger Y3+ and La3+ ions, coordination numbers of 8 and 9 are common.

The USGS reports that, from 2015 to 2019 in the US, the price of small quantities of scandium ingot has been $107 to $134 per gram, and that of scandium oxide $4 to $5 per gram.[23]. [55] In the light of these results, compounds of scandium should be handled as compounds of moderate toxicity. Its oxides … [40][41], In early 2018, evidence was gathered from spectrometer data of significant scandium, vanadium and yttrium abundances in red giant stars in the Nuclear Star Cluster (NSC) in the Galactic Center. Phone: +971 4 429 5853 e-mail:, Copyright © 1998-2020 Lenntech B.V. All rights reserved, Plant Inspection & Process Optimalisation, Separation and Concentration Purification Request. The blue color of the aquamarine variety of beryl is thought to be caused by scandium. 21 Sc Scandium 44.956 Period: 4 Melting Point: 1539 Boling Point: 2832 Ionization Energy: 6,5615 Electrone Gativity: 1,54 … [27] Scandium hydride is not well understood, although it appears not to be a saline hydride of Sc(II). In the chemical compounds of the elements in group 3, the predominant oxidation state is +3. Scandium is found in small proportions, generally less than 0.2 percent, in many of the heavy lanthanide ores and in many tin, uranium, and tungsten ores. Chemical properties of - Chemical properties of melting boil is 1539 Celsius, boiling boil is 2832 Celsius, Ionization Energy is 6,5615 kJ/mol, Electrone Gativity is 1,54, Covalent Radius is 144, Discovery Year: 1791, Discovery by Nilson, Lars Fredrik. It is the 42nd most abundant element found in the Earths crust. Scadium is not toxic, although there have been suggestions that some of its compounds might be cancerogenic. Scandium has no biological role. Some of its behaviour, however, is atypical of the rare earths because of its significantly smaller ionic radius (1.66 Å for coordination number 12) as compared with the rare-earth average (1.82 Å for coordination number 12). [50], The first scandium-based metal-halide lamps were patented by General Electric and initially made in North America, although they are now produced in all major industrialized countries. It is fairly stable in air but will slowly change its colour from silvery white to a yellowish appearance because of formation of Sc2O3 oxide on the surface. The radii of M3+ ions in the table below indicate that the chemical properties of scandium ions have more in common with yttrium ions than with aluminium ions.

The metal itself was first prepared in 1938 by the electrolysis of potassium, lithium, and scandium chlorides in a eutectic mixture (i.e., a mixture having the lowest melting point possible with those components). Distributieweg 3 2645 EG Delfgauw The Netherlands Phone: +31 152 610 900 fax: +31 152 616 289 e-mail:, 5975 Sunset Drive South Miami, FL 33143 USA Phone: +1 877 453 8095 e-mail:, Level 5 - OFFICE #8-One JLT Tower Jumeirah Lake Towers Dubai - U.A.E. 0.083 nm (+3) Isotopes. Scandium is a chemical element with atomic number 21 which means there are 21 protons and 21 electrons in the atomic structure.

The use of scandium is still growing, due to the fact that it is suited to produce catalysers and to polish glass.

The main application by volume is in aluminium-scandium alloys for the aerospace industry and for sports equipment (bikes, baseball bats, etc.) Scandium is dumped in the environment in many different places, mainly by petrol-producing industries. In all four halides, the scandium is 6-coordinated. [43], Some items of sports equipment, which rely on high-performance materials, have been made with scandium-aluminium alloys, including baseball bats[46] and bicycle frames and components. Scandium is only the 50th most abundant element on hearth, it is distributed widely, occurring in trace quantities in over 800 minerals. Energy of first ionisation. Scandium is one of the rare chemicals, that can be found in houses in equipment such as colour televisions, fluorescent lamps, energy-saving lamps and glasses. When alloyed with aluminum and aluminum-based alloys, scandium limits high-temperature grain growth. [37] The first pound of 99% pure scandium metal was produced in 1960. Scandium is one of the rare chemicals, that can be found in houses in equipment such as colour televisions, fluorescent lamps, energy-saving lamps and glasses. Scandium is a silvery white, moderately soft metal. Scandium (Sc), chemical element, a rare-earth metal of Group 3 of the periodic table. Add ⊕ Summary; Periodic Table; Facts; Uses; Physical; Chemical; Atomic; Mechanical; Magnetic; Thermal; Properties; All; 1 Chemical. The total electrical charge of the nucleus is therefore +Ze, where e (elementa… The chemistry of scandium bears a closer resemblance to that of the other rare-earth elements of oxidation state +3 than to that of aluminum or titanium. The atom consist of a small but massive nucleus surrounded by a cloud of rapidly moving electrons. [citation needed], The radioactive isotope 46Sc is used in oil refineries as a tracing agent. Electronegativity according to Pauling. Scandium properties are similar with yttrium so it is often classified as a lanthanide like element. Scandium is a silvery white, moderately soft metal. Scandium easily reacts with dilute acids. Holleman, A. F.; Wiberg, E. "Inorganic Chemistry" Academic Press: San Diego, 2001. This has two beneficial effects: the precipitated Al3Sc forms smaller crystals than in other aluminium alloys,[43] and the volume of precipitate-free zones at the grain boundaries of age-hardening aluminium alloys is reduced. It is easily burnt and get tarnished in the presence of air. For the golf company, see. Scandium will gradually accumulate in soils and water soils and this will eventually lead to increasing concentrations in humans, animals and soil particles. The properties of scandium compounds are intermediate between those of aluminium and yttrium. 7. Scandium chemical properties define its chemical formula, isotopes, oxides, electronegativity [39], Laser crystals of gadolinium-scandium-gallium garnet (GSGG) were used in strategic defense applications developed for the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) in the 1980s and 1990s. Although it is only about the 50th most abundant element on Earth (its abundance is similar to that of beryllium), it is about the 23rd most abundant element in the Sun.

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