Swiftness, severity, and certainty of punishments are the key constructs in GDT. Social order is maintained by domination, with power in the hands of those with the greatest political, economic, and social resources. Building Blocks of a Theory. GDT examines why certain individuals engage in deviant, anti-social, or criminal behaviors. Chaos theory is a field of study in mathematics, however, it has applications in several disciplines, including sociology and other social sciences. ThoughtCo uses cookies to provide you with a great user experience. This ability and motivation to elaborate is called elaboration likelihood. Five innovation characteristics are presumed to shape adopters’ innovation adoption decisions: (1) relative advantage: the expected benefits of an innovation relative to prior innovations, (2) compatibility: the extent to which the innovation fits with the adopter’s work habits, beliefs, and values, (3) complexity: the extent to which the innovation is difficult to learn and use, (4) trialability: the extent to which the innovation can be tested on a trial basis, and (5) observability: the extent to which the results of using the innovation can be clearly observed. Elaboration Likelihood Model. Missed the LibreFest? Agency theory also recommends tools that principals may employ to improve the efficacy of behavior-based contracts, such as investing in monitoring mechanisms (such as hiring supervisors) to counter the information asymmetry caused by moral hazard, designing renewable contracts contingent on agent’s performance (performance assessment makes the contract partially outcome-based), or by improving the structure of the assigned task to make it more programmable and therefore more observable. Early adopters are venturesome, well educated, and rely more on mass media for information about the innovation, while later adopters rely more on interpersonal sources (such as friends and family) as their primary source of information. Learning Objectives . Conflict theory emphasizes the role of coercion and power in producing social order. It is not about disorder, but rather is about very complicated systems of order. Two utilitarian philosophers of the eighteenth century, Cesare Beccaria and Jeremy Bentham, formulated General Deterrence Theory (GDT) as both an explanation of crime and a method for reducing it. Economics plays a huge role in human behavior. Critical Theory is a type of theory that aims to critique society, social structures, and systems of power, and to foster egalitarian social change. Agency theory (also called principal-agent theory), a classic theory in the organizational economics literature, was originally proposed by Ross (1973)4 to explain two-party relationships (such as those between an employer and its employees, between organizational executives and shareholders, and between buyers and sellers) whose goals are not congruent with each other. Legal. Elaboration likelihood is a situational characteristic and not a personal trait. Internal controls may include the person’s ability to perform the intended behavior (self-efficacy), while external control refers to the availability of external resources needed to perform that behavior (facilitating conditions). At the macro (population) level, IDT views innovation diffusion as a process of communication where people in a social system learn about a new innovation and its potential benefits through communication channels (such as mass media or prior adopters) and are persuaded to adopt it. After reviewing this chapter, readers should be able to: • Define what theory is and identify two key types of social and behavioral science theory that are relevant to public health interventions. The concept was first studied by French sociologist Gabriel Tarde, but the theory was developed by Everett Rogers in 1962 based on observations of 508 diffusion studies. Watch the recordings here on Youtube! The central route requires a person to think about issue-related arguments in an informational message and carefully scrutinize the merits and relevance of those arguments, before forming an informed judgment about the target object. In the peripheral route, subjects rely on external “cues” such as number of prior users, endorsements from experts, or likeability of the endorser, rather than on the quality of arguments, in framing their attitude towards the target object. • Describe the key constructs of four theories … The focus of GDT is not how to rehabilitate criminals and avert future criminal behaviors, but how to make criminal activities less attractive and therefore prevent crimes.

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